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Nội dung chính

  • Which of the following are true regarding the role of expectations in student achievement quizlet?
  • Which of the following is an example of a sustaining expectation effect?
  • Which of the following is one of the most important discoveries made by Jeannie Oakes?
  • What is meant by rationality of the organization?

As a new school year begins it is important to reflect as educators about the choices we make each day to ensure our actions are leading to positive outcomes for our students.  Expectations about student performance is one area of reflection that we
should consider. The expectations we hold as teachers and as parents in regards to students has a definite impact on student learning.  If we have low expectations for students this expectation is typically met. In addition, if we set high expectations for students while providing appropriate tư vấn and challenge, students can meet these expectations.  Because typically, the expectations we set, influence our own behavior and the choices we make in regards to the students we
serve.  Therefore, if we set low expectations for students we tend to not adequately tư vấn or challenge certain students.  Conversely, if we set high expectations for students we tend to provide the right amount of tư vấn or challenge to students which help them meet our expectations. 

Educational research can help educators focus on what matters most to make informed decisions to better tư vấn student learning and growth.  Researcher, John Hattie,
examined and synthesized more than 1,000 meta-analyses which comprised more than 50,000 individual studies, to determine factors that affect student learning and achievement.  In his book, Visible Learning, Hattie ranked 138 effects that influence learning outcomes and he continues to add to his research as his original list has grown to 195 (Hattie, 2022). This research is helpful to educators because if almost any change in education will have a positive effect, why not focus on those
that will have the greatest effect on student learning?  A year’s growth, calculated by Hattie, is 0.40.  So from his rankings of 195 effects on learning, educators can examine those influences that have a greater chance of increasing student learning and begin to use them in their teaching practice. 

Educators and parents can combine efforts to increase expectations for students’ achievement. There are many choices that we can make to better tư vấn our
students.  By developing partnerships with parents, teachers can work with parents to combine efforts and increase our impact on student learning.  Hattie has identified parental involvement as having the potential to accelerate learning with an effect size of 0.42.  There are many components to parental involvement.  Parental involvement refers to the amount of participation a parent has when it comes to schooling and the child’s life. This can be via events and
volunteer opportunities, school management, helping with homework, etc. (Hattie, 2022). If we break this down further we find that parents who listen to their child reading has an effect size of 0.51 which can also accelerate learning.  However, what really makes the biggest difference is when parents establish and communicate high expectations for student achievement with their child (Hattie, 2022).  High expectations for student achievement and verbalizing
these parental expectations to the child has an effect size of 0.70.  By effectively communicating and collaborating together, parents and teachers can ensure that high expectations are communicated to students.

Teachers also have a vital role to play in communicating expectations to students.  Teacher expectations have the potential to accelerate student learning with an effect size of 0.42.  These are expectations about student performance held by teachers.
These can be accurate or affected by biases (social background, gender, culture), but more often teachers hold either low, medium or high expectations for all their students (Hattie, 2022).  When coupled with Teachers Estimates of Achievement 1.46 we find that the potential to considerably accelerate student learning and growth can be harnessed to triple the amount of learning in a year.  The estimates of student achievement made by teachers are teacher judgments which can include:
helping to  set expectations; be used to benchmark past understanding; are involved in setting the next challenges, identify those who may have early signs of difficulties; inform placement and intervention choices; and influence instructional choices. These judgments come from questioning, observing, written work presentations, how the student reacts to increased challenge, and assignments and tests (Hattie, 2022). 

The expectations that parents and teachers have
for their students are often met.  This is because the actions that parents and teachers take as a result of the expectations set help students to reach the expectations.  If parents and teachers typically set lower expectations for certain students (based on behavior or previous academic performance) then often these students are given the opportunities to grow.  Parents and teachers should be cognizant of the expectations they have for their students and set high expectations
for all students.  After setting these expectations proper tư vấn, challenge, and encouragement should be given to help students reach their educational goals.  By communicating our expectations of achievement to students and providing tư vấn during their journey of learning, students will meet our expectations of achievement. As we start a new school year, it is helpful for teachers and parents to think about the expectations they set for students and ensure that they are setting
and communicating high expectations for their students. 

Hattie, J. (2022, May). How to Empower Student Learning with Teacher Clarity. Corwin. Retrieved November 15, 2022, from ://us.corwin/sites/default/files/corwin_whitepaper_teacherclarity_may2017_final.pdf. 

Hattie, J. (2022). Visible Learning Metax website: Parental Expectations.  Retrieved August 16, 2022, from
://.visiblelearningmetax/influences/view/parental_expectations_

Hattie, J. (2022). Visible Learning Metax website: Parent Involvement.  Retrieved August 16, 2022, from
://.visiblelearningmetax/influences/view/teacher_estimates_of_achievement_

Hattie, J. (2022). Visible Learning Metax website: Teachers Estimates of Achievement.  Retrieved August 16, 2022, from
://.visiblelearningmetax/influences/view/teacher_estimates_of_achievement_

Which of the following are true regarding the role of expectations in student achievement quizlet?

Which of the following are true regarding the role of expectations in student achievement? If students expect to succeed, they are more likely to work hard to reach a goal.

Which of the following is an example of a sustaining expectation effect?

What is a sustaining expectation effect example? When you have a expectation of a students but then the students exceeds those expectations but the teacher does not alter their expectations for that student, therefore the student doesn’t get an unfair disadvantage.

Which of the following is one of the most important discoveries made by Jeannie Oakes?

In the context of the education system in the U.S., which of the following is one of the most important discoveries made by Jeannie Oakes? She found that in the tracking system, race, far more than ability, determines which students are placed in which tracks.

What is meant by rationality of the organization?

The rationality of the organization shows in the ability to ‘calculate’ the consequences of its actions. Because of the hierarchy of authority and the system of rules, control of the actions of individuals in the organization is assured; this is the depersonalization.
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